"No! I swear by the collapsing of stars; and most surely it is a very great oath if you only knew."
(Al Waqiah, The Violent Event: 75, 76)
"By the star, when it vanishes (or collapses)."
(Al Najm, The Star: 1)
Today if you ask the astronomers or cosmologists about the strangest thing in the Universe, they will tell you the 'blackholes'. This is a recent terminology of what previously known was 'a black star' in the 18th century, which some people thought that a kind of a star should exist, which doesn't emit any light thus invisible. This idea was not that interesting at that time because people thought it was absurd and useless to work with. Before 18th century, even a black star didn't exist in human knowledge. Since fourteen centuries, these verses were not understood, and we did not know what's the collapsing of stars means. The dependency of collapse and invisibility was not understood by anyone in any part of the world.
Fourteen centuries ago when Qurran predicted the existence of those strange events of stars, no one was there to fully know (except the Receiver, I believe). In the mentioned verses of Al Waqiah, the plural word 'Mawaqqi' was translated in many languages with different meanings i.e., falling of stars, violent events of stars, setting of stars etc. but all meanings pointed to the same mysterious event which frequently happens to stars. The name of Surah 'Waqiah' itself means 'the violent event'. And 'Mawaqqi' is derived from this word. Using this word with stars means stellar violent events; but of what sort? It was easy to misunderstand this verse when the general concept was that Earth stands still and the stars, Moon, and the Sun rose in the east and set in the west. Our Lord says that soon He will show the people the signs in the farthest horizons of the Universe and within themselves until it will be clear to everyone that there must be One Creator and the Ultimate Reality. To fully appreciate the Qurran's sense of prediction, which is without any limitation of time and space, let's examine the collapsing stars, or in modern terminology, the 'blackholes'.
So what is a blackholes? Before you ask the question like this, lets analyse the Commandment of asking the questions of this kind, which require some preconditions. First, you live in that time period of human civilization when it has already achieved the level of asking the deeper questions and is able to predict the existence of those things, which are still not in observation. For instance, to be able to know about the speed of Earth in its orbit, you must have known in the past that Earth is a planet. When you don't know that Earth is a planet, you will never ask the question about it's speed in the orbit around Sun. Any formula of orbital speeds will be ignored when dealing with Earth sciences. When our knowledge expands, it starts predicting those things, which are yet to observe in nature, but reside in our theories. Blackhole is this kind of prediction on the basis of knowledge and observation we have already achieved, but didn't observe it physically yet.
(This episode is all about the density, mass, and the weight of a star, however, we will ignore the difference between 'weight' and 'mass' for simplification in this episode. It is however recommended to read definition entry. Open a new window by clicking at: 'Whats and Whys of Mass, Weight, Gravity, and 4D Space-time - an understanding through Quantum Physics, General Relativity and the Holy Qurran')
Blackhole is the name of a small dead body of a large star, many times larger than our Sun, and many millions of miles wide, which collapsed on itself due to its own weight at the end of its life, normally lived hundreds of millions of years. Its matter and thus gravitational pull is extremely concentrated in a mere 10 kilometres. This concentration of matter is not like a marble, rather it converts the matter into some kind of infinite force or energy. Blackhole has the strongest known gravitational pull; even light cannot escape its boundary due to its gravity. This is why it is invisible and harder to detect in the blackness of space, hence the name 'blackhole'. These properties have strange consequences. It distorts space and time. According to General Relativity, time slows down in stronger gravity and completely freezes in infinite gravity. Our perception of time depends upon the light, and light itself behaves differently inside the blackhole. It is so powerful that a blackhole with a diameter (width) of just 10 kilometers can eat up a large star in its vicinity and all of the scientists and mathematicians worldwide agree that the general laws of physics and our capabilities of imagination break down the time we cross a certain boundary of a blackhole. Whatever falls inside the blackhole, can only come out of it if it exceeds the speed of light which is not possible at least in this Universe. Conditions inside a blackhole are synonymous to the time before Big Bang when Universe was ready to come into existence. Thus these two events are difficult to calculate and understand because infinities cannot be calculated using the chain of cause-and-effect technique. This is a symbol of a break down or a limitation of human knowledge. Currently we cannot answer scientifically that why Universe came into existence or what happens when something becomes infinite thus incalculable i.e., a blackhole. Black hole does not wander like astronomical vacuum cleaner, it remains there exactly at the same location orbiting in the galaxy where once its star was orbiting. It is a misconception that black holes randomly travel. In reality, they are only dangerous when something unnecessarily gets close to them, otherwise they also follow the inversed squared law for gravity for their galaxies.
Now this is how the blackhole of Earth shall be cooked. Keep the torch with you, as you will frequently need to beam the 'light' towards Moon. The weight of Earth is 6x10 (with power 21) tonnes (6 with 21 zeros after it). We feel Earth's gravity because we are very close to it and that's why we fall on the ground at 11 meters per second. Now you beam your torch towards the Moon, which is high in the sky, light beam goes straight towards Moon. Anyone sitting on the Moon will see a small point of light from Earth. Now being close to Earth if we double the mass or 'weight' of Earth, we will fall at 44 meters per second (squared law). Light beam of your torch still goes towards Moon. Anybody on Moon will come to know about a small point of light coming from Earth. What happens is that we feel the certain amount of gravitational force of Earth because some parts of Earth are closer to us and some are farther to us.
How much gravity we will feel if we squeeze the Earth in an inch-size circle while its 'weight' is the same? As we know now that in extremely high temperatures matter can be squeezed into a smaller area because it's atoms contain 100% amount of space in it while its weight or mass remains the same.
The answer is not 11 meters per second because all parts of Earth will be pulling you towards it and gravity accumulates. In these circumstances the gravity of an inch-size-Earth will be so intense that you will never be able to separate Earth from your body. Now beam your torch's light towards Moon. Something strange will happen here. Instead of travelling straight, light starts bending enormously and ends up endlessly circulating an inch-size-Earth and will never leave it. This is because the light also feels gravitational force and this effect makes a big difference when the gravity becomes intense. This is law of General Theory of Relativity and has been confirmed experimentally. Any object emitting light from an inch-size-Earth, cannot be seen from outside because the light cannot reach in the eyes of observers outside this miniature Earth. Your Earth has become a blackhole, which means it is invisible to rest of the Universe, but its gravity is still active for Moon to keep it in the same orbit.
Using this analogy, if we squeeze our Sun at maximum, it will end up being a miniature Sun of about 8 to 10 kilometres wide. But only those stars become blackholes whose sizes (masses) are well over 1.4 times larger than our Sun and die out in violent explosion called 'supernova', though there is a chance that they may become a neutron star instead of a black hole. A neutron star is the most condense form of matter conceivable in the Universe. A teaspoon of neutron star weighs a million tons. But the stars with masses over 8 times the mass of a Sun have no choice but to completely transform themselves into mad energy at their deaths, by becoming a black hole. Our Sun will experience the 'Supernova' some 5 to 6 billion years from now but it is not destined to become a blackhole. Because of infinite intensity of gravity inside a blackhole, General Theory of Relativity predicts that 'time' must be frozen inside it. In fact, this theory is no more applicable inside a blackhole because currently the scientific theories are not able to deal with 'infinite' values such as blackhole or time at the Big Bang. So, a billionth of a second spent inside a blackhole spans on eternity in normal circumstances. This is horrifying to know that modern cosmology believes that our whole Universe is destined to contain blackholes of everything billions of years from now. But it is still a mathematical speculation.
We are waiting for a better model of the Universe, which will have the capability to explain in details the infinities, such as the internal structure and conditions (singularities) of blackholes or the conditions in which existence of the Universe was inevitable. Furthermore, we must also be conscious of an ultimate 'infinity', naming God, Lord of the Dominions.
| Say: He is Allah the One and Only
| Allah, the Eternal, Absolute
| He begets not, nor is He begotten
| And none is like Him.
Any model of Universe or existence which does not incorporate this ultimate infinity, cannot be trusted because then it will not be able to explain the 'beginning of all causes', source of Universe, etc; and, it will always be prone to modifications even abandonment in some parts because of new observations. But in science, it cannot be a theory which incorporates the infinities thus offering limited predictability and is not prone to change. We also need to remember that infinities are not predictable, especially when we are dealing with ultimate infinity. In reality historically whenever the broader hypothesis was introduced, either it predicted the infinities or limited itself to ignore the infinities. Quantum Physics is one of them. Due to its foundations, the 'uncertainty principle', 'wave-particle duality (finity and infinity of a thing at the same time)', and 'the prediction of never to be able to predict the future', were always hinderances in its acceptance. Einstein himself disliked Quantum Physics, but decades later, Quantum Physics was inevitable. Now nearly all attempts to create a comprehensive theory always consist the laws of Quantum Physics. Science denies its own rules.
Why do these theories with infinities are posed in the first place when science has already made the rules to construct a theory? The reason is that sometimes 'observation' does not follow the rules of science. It is science that has to change its rules to account for observations. It even has to abandon its some theories or refine them. Second reason is that 'observation' rules the science not any specific organization belonging to some specific theory. There are some immature scientists who criticize those theories which do not predict or work like their own theories. This is a historical fact and faced by all those theories in their times which are now foundations of modern science. For instance, Relativity predicts that time is a dimension same like other dimensions of height, width, and length. So time stays still and does not flow in forward or any direction. It is we who travel relative to space-time (4 dimensions) which defines the flow of time 'locally', not Universally. Every location in the Universe experiences different rate of this flow. Thus those events which apparently appear to happen at the same time, may be millions of years apart in time. For instance, if we see two comets, one hitting the Moon and other at the Sun at the same, in reality one comet hit the Sun some 8 minutes earlier and the other hit the Moon some 1.4 seconds earlier. Lights from the Moon and the Sun took different duration of time to reach us. Conversely, if we see two events taking place with different duration in time, they may have taken place at the same time in reality. Therefore it is possible to cast the doubt on the various 'co-incidences' taken place in the heavens due to this mentioned physical law. On the other hand, Quantum physics states that there is nothing in the Universe which can be predicted with 100% accuracy; at maximum we can do is to estimate the probability or likelihood to happen something. These both theories baffled the scientists of their time, and in return received considerable criticism. Einstein did not receive the most reputed Noble Prize for Relativity, yet Relativity is one of the foundations of modern science.
Stephen Hawking of Cambridge University even postulates that if the General Theory of Relativity is correct then the Universe started off from a primordial blackhole. If this postulation is correct then it implies that our Universe is situated inside a blackhole of another parent Universe. This postulation predicts that there are other Universes inside the other blackholes of parent Universe. Furthermore, it also predicts that every blackhole creates a new Universe inside it, thus making a tree-like structure of Universes. How the things exist in these wild circumstances? Answer is that a blackhole with larger diameter (i.e., center of a galaxy) is less violent than a blackhole with small diameter. If our Universe lies inside a blackhole then this blackhole is so large that it is not very violent and makes possible for the atoms to exist. This also means that when Universe was very small and dense right after the Big Bang, no atoms could exist at that time. This idea is consistent with observational evidences of Cosmology. However it also requires faster-than-light travel to exit. This postulation does not solve the actual problem. How did the parent Universe came into existence in whose blackhole our Universe started off? Was there another primordial blackhole of the parent Universe? This introduces the infinity in the universal blackhole hypothesis. This blackhole hypothesis though combines the blackhole phenomena with the reason of existence of our Universe, it is not comfortable to many fellow physicists because it introduces the infinity of blackholes, space and time as well. If this hypothesis is incorrect then we are admitting that General Relativity is a physics of a closed system rather than the theory of Universe. Thus General Theory of Relativity does not address the infinities not because it solved them, but only because it could not handle them i.e., singularity of blackhole and circumstances before Big Bang. This contradiction gives us a glimpse of the difference between a limited knowledge a mortal can acquire and the real knowledge for which he is not capable of understanding through his personal standards of logic. Qurran also contains many signs which are beyond our capabilities. Among others, God Himself is one of them being an infinity, if we try to visualize Him. Thus a limited model of Universe can be constructed which can explain the mechanics of those phenomena which previous theories could not explain, and whose depth does not depend on the researcher's character, actions, and faith. But naming such a theory as 'theory of everything' is fundamentally incorrect.
In theory, the blackholes can be detected but through different indirect techniques. Normally the stars are always found in pairs and they orbit each other, which can be detected. If we observe a single star orbiting the 'nothingness', it means we have indirectly detected a blackhole in the visible star's vicinity. This kind of technique was used to observe a blackhole close to a star naming Cygnus X-1 in the constellation of Cygnus, The Swan. Other observations are related to galaxies which state that there lie the 'giant blackholes' in the centres of galaxies, million upon million times larger than the Sun. This kind of gigantic blackhole is so powerful that it drives the rotation of a galaxy. In our own galaxy, Milky Way, we have detected the X-ray source in the direction of a constellation naming Sagittarius. The Chandra X-Ray Space Telescope revealed our gigantic blackhole, which lies at the safe distance of 30,000 light years from us. A light year is a distance light takes to travel in one whole year (about 10 trillion km).
There is unlimited number of blackholes in the space, which are invisible to us, and may trigger the Day of Resurrection even without notification. Lets wait until the un-alterable Qurran suddenly shows up a detailed understanding of blackhole physics.
Thus according to current understanding, the only great event after the Big Bang itself, which happens to stars, is to become a 'black hole'. It is worthy to be sworn upon.